Vocabularies Standards

This page is a list of Standards and Proposed Standards. It is, in some cases, a list of specifications for some operation or artifact type put forward as a standard under the stewardship and authority of some outside organization.

Services, Protocols and Formats References

A service is a standardized way of integrating Web-based applications using open standards over an Internet protocol backbone. Web services share business logic, data and processes through a programmatic interface between applications and across a network. Protocols are a strategy for transmitting data between systems, and can be used to communicate between services. A protocol can be used not only over the internet, between computers, but also between applications running anywhere. Format standards are a description of the digital storage and structural requirements of metadata which assures that different software programs are able to read or query the data. These standards all allow for easy sharing of data and metadata between disparate applications connected via a network, such as the Internet.

Here, we provide references to services, protocols, and format standards descriptions and specifications that we are aware of, including a description, link to an external description or specification, and an informal characterization of its maturity, in some cases. If you would like to see a reference added, please contact us.

For Content standards, see Element Sets in the Legal Metadata site.

Titlesort icon Description Reference Type Reference Topics
Fedora Flexible Extensible Digital Object and Repository Architecture (Fedora) is a general-purpose digital object repository system that can be used in whole or part to support a variety of use cases including: institutional repositories, digital libraries, content management, digital asset management, scholarly publishing, and digital preservation.
LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an open-standard protocol for searching and browsing X.500 directory services, using Internet transport protocols.
MTOM & XOP SOAP-Message Transmission Optimization Mechanism (MTOM) and XML-binary Optimized Packaging (XOP) are emerging standards for optimized XML-to-binary serialization.
OAI-PMH Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) provides an application-independent interoperability framework based on metadata harvesting among Data Providers and Service Providers.
ODL Open Digital Libraries (ODL) adopts the notions of simplicity and reusability from the Open Archives Initiative (OAI), and adds extensibility and componentization.
OPeNDAP OPeN Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) is a framework that “”simplifies all aspects of scientific data networking””, using the DODS protocol for requesting and transporting data across the web.
Proof Markup Language (PML) Specification of terms for encoding collections of justifications to answers in question answering scenarios
RDF Resource Description Framework (RDF) provides a lightweight ontology system to support the exchange of knowledge on the Web.
RDQL RDF Data Query Language (RDQL) extracts information from RDF graphs.
REST Representational State Transfer (REST), a term coined by Roy Fielding in his Ph.D. dissertation, is characterized by a network of web pages (a virtual state-machine), where the user progresses through an application by selecting links (state transitions), resulting in the next page (representing the next state of the application) being transferred to the user and rendered for their use.
RSS Really Simple Syndication (RSS) is a family of XML-based communication standards, primarily used by news web sites and weblogs, to summarize content and its changes.
SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a web-services oriented specification for communicating across the web.
SPARQL RDF query language that can be used to express queries across diverse data sources
THREDDS Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS) provides middleware services to bridge the gap between data providers and data consumers; develops and enhances the underlying data access software tools, libraries and protocols; and influences how data providers and clients use them.
Web Ontology Language – OWL OWL is the language recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium to express ontologies.
WSDL Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is a XML-based language for describing Web services and how to access them.
XML-RPC XML-RPC is a XML-based format for remote procedure calls between Web servers and clients.
XQuery XQuery is a query language designed to be broadly applicable across many types of XML data sources (structured documents, relational databases, object repositories).
Z39.50 Z39.50 (ISO 23950) is the ANSI/NISO U.S. national standard for search and retrieval of bibliographic information.

More Standards:

ISLE Metadata Initiative

ISO 19115 ISO 19115 standard for geospatial metadata. This is a content standard for metadata for data, datasets, and data series. ISO 19119 specifies a metadata content model for describing geospatial web…

ISO 19119 ISO 19119 standard for geospatial services
ISO 19139 ISO 19139 implementation standard for geospatial dataset (ISO 19115) and service (ISO 19119) metadata.
North American Profile of ISO 19115:2003 – Geographic Information The North American Profile of
ANSI Standards Store, INCITS 453-2009, $30.00
OGC Catalog service for the web (CSW 2.0.2) The OpenGIS® Catalogue Services Interface Standard (CAT) supports the ability to publish and search collections of descriptive information (metadata) about geospatial data, services and related…
Open Geospatial Consortium CSW page

OGC CSW APISO – OGC ISO19115/ISO19119 application profile for CSW 2.0 This document specifies a profile of the OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) 2.0.2 using the ISO 19115/ISO19119 metadata content model,  with support for XML encoding per ISO19139 and HTTP…
OpenGIS Catalog Services Specification 2.0.2 – ISO Metadata Application Profile (1.0.0)

Open Data Protocol The Open Data Protocol (OData) is a Web protocol for querying and updating data that provides a way to unlock your data and free it from silos that exist in applications today. OData does this by…
Home page
OpenSearch Home Page OpenSearch search standard. Defines OpenSearch Description Document that provides and XML service description that allows client software to formulate search requests to a search endpoint that has an…
OASIS Binding for OpenSearch Version 1.0

W3C Extensible Markup Language (XML) Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a simple, very flexible text format derived from SGML (ISO 8879). Originally designed to meet the challenges of large-scale electronic publishing, XML is also…
XML current technical recommendation

W3C SKOS SKOS provides a standard way to represent knowledge organization systems using the Resource Description Framework (RDF). Encoding this information in RDF allows it to be passed between computer…
SKOS Reference 18 August 2009


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